Why Goat Farming
Goat is a multi functional animal and plays a significant role in the economy and nutrition of landless, small and marginal farmers in the country. Goat rearing is an enterprise which has been practiced by a large section of population in rural areas. Goats can efficiently survive on available shrubs and trees in adverse harsh environment in low fertility lands where no other crop can be grown.
In addition to this, goat has religious and ritualistic importance in many societies. The advantages of goat rearing are:
Kidding ManagementHave the pregnant does graze a pasture close to your house, so that you can easily check them. If you supplement your does with a concentrate or hay, feed it at night. Somehow late feeding delays birthing toward the early morning hours in the majority of animals. It is a good idea to have some kidding pens ready for weak kids. It is not always easy to detect pre-kidding signs in goats: however, mucous discharge is a sure sign that kidding is imminent. Following birth, the navel of newborn kids should be dipped in iodine.
Stall Fed FarmingSTALL-FED GOATS can ideally fit into the intensive integrated farming system (IIFS). The small animals are the most efficient converters of farm and crop residues into excellent organic manure. Several farmers have successfully run stall-fed goat farms, and they have found that such an integrated farming venture was more productive and profitable as well. Goats relish the stalks and residues of most of the nutritious cereals, and they do well particularly when mixed with green fodder such as grasses and subabul. Special goat-feeds can be formulated using farm-grown millets and oilcakes. As the cost of the feed and also the labor gets distributed over other farming operations, the actual cost of raising the goats becomes minimal. The rich goat manure is ideal for fertilizing fishponds and all other crops. It is also a good base material for vermicomposting.
Nutrient Goat RequiresDry Matter Goat Requires The dry matter intake is an important consideration since it reflects the capacity in terms of voluntary food intake to utilize the feed. With goats there appears to be distinct difference in intake between meat and dairy types.Meat goats have a dry matter intake of 3-4 percent of their live weight whereas dairy goats have a dry mater intake of 5-7 percent of their live weight. The other factors which affect the DM (dry matter) consumptions are availability of feeds, palatability, moisture content and amount of fibrous material present in feed. Dry matter requirements as has been observed by ICAR for kids with 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 kg body and growing at the rate of 50g/day are 425, 600, 700, 800 and 950 g respectively. For maintenance of adult it seems to vary between 66 to 70 g/w. Variations observed might be due to the size of the species and density of the energy in the feed. However, DM intake of pregnant goat was found to be 2.96 kg/100kg body weight and 76.30 g/W
Feeding of Goats
Kids must receive colostrum from the doe within one hour after birth and should continue for 3 days as the total energy reserves of new born kids from well fed does is about 800-900 kcal and kids of under nourished does oly 400 kcal. These reserves would be adequate to meet the energy demand in drying the birth coat in a reasonable warm environment, but in winter the heat loss could well approach 150 kcal/hour in kids weighing 3 kg body weight. Thus after the reserves are over and if the suckling is not established, the kids will die, colostrum is rich in all essential nutrients, it provides antibodies for protection of man diseases and it has got laxative properties, cleans from its intestine the accumulated faucal matter known as meconium, which is often of a dry, putty-like nature.